Researchers at the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Kharagpur have developed a method that may be useful in the early detection of strengthening or development of tropical cyclones from the atmospheric column before satellites across ocean surface at the North Indian Ocean area.

The researchers invented a novel approach using the Eddy detection method to examine the formative phases and progress detection period of tropical cyclogenesis in the North Indian Ocean area. This analysis has been conducted under the Climate Change Program (CCP) with aid from the Department of Science and Technology, Government of India, an official announcement said. 

Early detection of Tropical cyclones has broad socio-economic consequences. Thus far, remote sensing techniques have discovered them the oldest. But this detection was possible just once the procedure developed as a well-marked low-pressure system within the warm sea surface. A larger time difference between the detection and the effects of the cyclone can help prep actions.

Before creating a cyclonic system within the warm oceanic surroundings, the first atmospheric instability mechanics and the vortex growth are triggered in higher atmospheric levels. These cyclonic eddies are notable features in the vertical atmospheric column surrounding the disturbance environment, which can induce and develop into a well-marked cyclonic depression within the warm sea surface. They are utilized for the detection of the forecast of cyclones.

The method designed aims to recognize the first traces of pre-cyclonic eddy vortices from the atmospheric column and monitor Spatio-temporal development. They utilized a coarser grid resolution of 27 km for identification and a finer resolution of 09 km to rate the qualities of eddy vortices.

They analyzed with instances of four post-monsoon acute cyclones –Phailin (2013), Vardah (2013), Gaja (2018), Madi (2013), and also two pre-monsoon cyclones Mora (2017) and Aila (2009) that acquired within North Indian Ocean. The team observed that the procedure might lead to the genesis of the forecast using a minimum of four times (~ 90 h) lead period to get cyclones developed through the pre-and post-monsoon seasons. 

Initiation mechanisms of the genesis of tropical cyclones happen at top atmospheric levels. They can also detect them at a greater lead period for pre-monsoon scenarios, including the post-monsoon instances. 

The analysis made a detailed investigation of eddies’ behavior within an atmospheric column for non-developing instances and compared these findings with growing instances.